International Journal of Scientific Research and Engineering Development
( International Peer Reviewed Open Access Journal ) ISSN [ Online ] : 2581 - 7175
IJSRED Volume 2 - Issue 4, July - August 2019
Cover-Page 1 Cover-Page 2
|S. No.||Title and Authors Name||Paper ID|
Geochemical Analysis of Similarities in the Crude Oil Samples of the Coastal Swamp Depobelt of Niger Delta
Author(s): Ezidiegwu P.C, Abrakasa S., Ozumba B.M, Ikiesikiemama S.S
Geochemical analyses of six crude oil samples from six oil fields in the Coastal Swamp Depobelt of the Niger Delta Basin Nigeria, was performed to determine the similarities in the crude oil composition distribution intra-depobelt-wise by comparing GC fingerprints of the oils in the context of their organic matter source, thermal maturity, waxiness and environment of deposition. The samples arecoded KZ15, KZ18, KZ22, KZ24, KZ27 and KZ28.
Generic hydrocarbon ratios (such as Pr/Ph, Pr/nC17, Ph/nC18, Carbon Potential Index (CPI), Terrigenous/ Aquatic ratio (TAR) were used to infer the geochemical characteristics of these samples. Significantly, the ratios of n-alkanes and aliphatic isoprenoids revealed that Pr/nC17 ranged from 0.52 to 2.07 while Ph/nC18 ranged from 0.32 to 1.62 meaning that the oils were derived from organic matter of terrestrial origin and various degrees of marine inputs. Also, Pristane/Phytane ratios ranged from 2.23 to 3.17, suggesting that the organic matter was deposited in generally oxic (deltaic and shallow marine) environments. Several cross plots (such as waxiness versus (vs) Pr/Ph, CPI vs Pr/Ph and TAR vs Pr/Ph) were made. A plot of CPI and Pr/Ph revealed mixed organic matter input corroborating the results from some of the ratios especially n-alkanes/isoprenoid ratios. High TAR was observed and a crossplot of TAR against Pr/Ph showed more terrigenous input.
A star plot revealed that oils of the Coastal Swamp Depobelt of the Niger Delta have similar organic geochemical characteristics, thus are related, a slight deviation from this was attributed to degradation. Three distinct classes of Gas chromatogram fingerprints exist at various locations in the Coastal swamp depobelt and this observation is a quick and useful clue in spilled oil to suspected source correlation during spill investigation where a chromatogram profile of sample under investigation can be easily correlated to its source within this depobelt.
Keyword: Geochemical analyses, Thermal maturity, oil to source correlation, depositional environment, Gas chromatogram.×
Ezidiegwu P.C, Abrakasa S., Ozumba B.M, Ikiesikiemama S.S "Geochemical Analysis of Similarities in the Crude Oil Samples of the Coastal Swamp Depobelt of Niger Delta" Vol 2-Issue 4 (629-635) July - August 2019, International Journal of Scientific Research and Engineering Development (IJSRED) :ISSN:2581-7175, www.ijsred.com.×
Impacts of Globalization on Political, Economic and Cultural Development in Nigeria
Author(s): Daffin Karwitha Kimonye, Mohamed Abdirashid Haji, John Ngamau
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of globalization on political, economical and cultural growth in Nigeria. This study has portrayed the dynamics in which globalization affects Nigeria both negatively and positively. Globalization has brought many challenges like unfair trade policies, terrorism, drug trafficking, money laundry, brain drain but also opened doors for the country to benefit through exports and imports, technology transfer also inflow of foreign investments. Whether Nigeria likes it or not globalization has come to stay, with effective and efficient resource utilization, sound monetary and fiscal policies, institution reforms and investments in education and agricultural sector of the economy, Nigeria can witness accelerated socio economic development.
Keyword: Globalisation, Development, Nigeria.×
Daffin Karwitha Kimonye, Mohamed Abdirashid Haji, John Ngamau "Impacts of Globalization on Political, Economic and Cultural Development in Nigeria" Vol 2-Issue 4 (636-645) July - August 2019, International Journal of Scientific Research and Engineering Development (IJSRED) :ISSN:2581-7175, www.ijsred.com.×
Estimation of Probable Maximum Flood
Author(s): Nay Myo Kyaw Thu, Swe Swe Khaing
The Probable Maximum Flood (PMF) is one of a range of conceptual flood events used in the design of hydrological structures. The main objective of this paper is the estimation of probable maximum flood for Shwegyin Hydropower Project and Yeywa Hydropower Projects. Other objectives of this study are to provide systematic procedures that will consistently produce a reasonable PMF hydrograph and appropriate reservoir flood levels for evaluation of project safety, apply probable maximum flood (PMF) in spillway design of large projects and reduce severe flood damage. In evaluation Probable Maximum Flood (PMF), Unit hydrograph method is used for Shwegyin Project. For Yeywa Project, statically approach and meteorological approach is used In evaluation Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP). Probable Maximum Flood (PMF) is estimated by Snyder’s Unit hydrograph method for Yeywa Project.
Keyword: Pmf, Pmp, Flood Estimation, Extreme Flood, Probableflood, Maximum Flood..×
Nay Myo Kyaw Thu, Swe Swe Khaing "Estimation of Probable Maximum Flood" Vol 2-Issue 4 (582-586) July - August 2019, International Journal of Scientific Research and Engineering Development (IJSRED) :ISSN:2581-7175, www.ijsred.com.×
The Generic Relationship among Oils from the Greater Ughelli Depobelt of the Niger Delta Basin
Author(s): Ezidiegwu P.C, Abrakasa S, Ozumba B.M, Ikiensikimama S.S
The genetic relationship of oils from three fields in the Greater Ughelli depobelt of the Niger Delta Basin Nigeria was evaluated . This involved the geochemical analyses for generic hydrocarbon ratios derived from the GC fingerprint profile. Ratios such as Pr/Ph (Pristane/Phytane), Pr/nC17, Ph/nC18 and Carbon Preferential Index (CPI) of the crude oils were determined in respect of their organic matter source, thermal maturity and environment of deposition. The samples were coded KZ1, KZ2 and KZ4. Pr/Ph ratio, Pr/nC17 versus Ph/nC18 and CPI versus Pr/Ph plots revealed that samples KZ1 and KZ2 were derived from organic matter of dominant terrestrial origin while KZ4 is of significant marine contribution. The CPI of all the three samples were approximately 1.0 implying that all the samples are thermally mature. Gas chromatogram fingerprint of the three samples showed that samples KZ2 and KZ4 had undergone a significant degree of biodegradation when compared to KZ2 The GC envelope (profile) KZ2 and KZ4 indicates a possible petroleum recharge of the reservoir or invasion of bacteria through the metreoric waters.
Keyword: Geochemical analyses, Thermal maturity, oil to source linkage, depositional environment, Gas chromatogram, Carbon Preference Index (CPI).×
Ezidiegwu P.C, Abrakasa S, Ozumba B.M, Ikiensikimama S.S "The Generic Relationship among Oils from the Greater Ughelli Depobelt of the Niger Delta Basin" Vol 2-Issue 4 (587-592) July - August 2019, International Journal of Scientific Research and Engineering Development (IJSRED) :ISSN:2581-7175, www.ijsred.com.×
Estimation of Breeding Value of FH Dairy Cattle Milk Production in BBPTU-HPT Baturraden
Author(s): Maria Tarsisia Luju, Luqman Hakim, Sucik Maylinda
The purpose of this study was to determine the genetic potential of the nature of milk production from 100 FH dairy cattle in BBPTU-HPT Baturraden. The material used in this study was 100 FH dairy cattle that had a record of milk production in the first lactation period. The method was a case study. The result of this study indicated that the breeding value of milk production from 100 FH dairy cattle was 4,323 kg and 43% of the 100 dairy cattle had a good genetic potential for milk production and were above the population average value. Therefore, FH female dairy cattle could be used as a prospective cow for the next generation.
Keyword: breeding value, FH female dairy cattle.×
Maria Tarsisia Luju, Luqman Hakim, Sucik Maylinda "Estimation of Breeding Value of FH Dairy Cattle Milk Production in BBPTU-HPT Baturraden" Vol 2-Issue 4 (593-596) July - August 2019, International Journal of Scientific Research and Engineering Development (IJSRED) :ISSN:2581-7175, www.ijsred.com.×
Analysis and Design of Water Tank Employing STAAD. Pro for Cost Optimization
Author(s): Himanshu Dwivedi, Dr. M.K.Gupta
– Water is the basic need for all the living organisms to survive. Portable water is essential for good health of human beings. It is important to supply portable water to every individual and every community; hence it is very essential to store water. Water is generally stored in tanks and later the stored water is supplied to every community through pipelines.In this project, we have planned and designed an circular reinforced cement concrete tank. A circular water tank is manually designed. It is further analyzed using the premiere analysis software STAADPRO. The design and detailed drawings are presented in this project work.Limit state design method for water retaining structure was not adopted so far as liquid retaining structure should be crack free. However, This edition of Indian standard adopts limit state method mainly considering two aspects. Firstly it limits the stresses in steel so that concrete is not over stressed and in second aspect it limits the cracking width. Structure has been designed using the LSM , as the LSM gives less area of reinforcement of steel and hence the check for crack width has been done. Further to make the structure most economical STAAD.Pro is used. For quick cost prediction of tanks, this study therefore examines the cost effectiveness in terms of amount of materials. At the end of the project it concludes that total amount of concrete and steel used for construction of circular tank. .
Himanshu Dwivedi, Dr. M.K.Gupta "Analysis and Design of Water Tank Employing STAAD. Pro for Cost Optimization" Vol 2-Issue 4 (597-606) July - August 2019, International Journal of Scientific Research and Engineering Development (IJSRED) :ISSN:2581-7175, www.ijsred.com.×
Impact Assessment of Urban Expansion on the Incomes of Urban Fringe Farmers: The Case of Feresbet Town: Amhara Regional State: Ethiopia
Author(s): Ajanaw Kebede
Objective: The principal objectives of the study was designed to analyze the impacts of urban expansion on the incomes of urban fringe farmers in Feresbet town and it also extends in identify the main urban expansion drivers, quantify the rate of expansion and evaluate the compensation procedures Methods: To achieve the objective, house hold survey of 223 expropriated farmers was conducted. Supplementary data was also gathered through interviewing of selected officials, observation and by consulting secondary data sources. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics in SPSS.Result: Therefore, the finding of the study revealed that, population growth, lack of affordable housing, land speculation and topography of the town are the causes Feresbet town expansion from 354 hectare to 774 hectare from 2009 to 2016. In addition to this the results also indicates that; the municipality didn’t implement the legal frame works to determined compensation. As a result of urban expansion and expropriation displaced house hold heads shifted their occupation from agriculture to daily labor and the amount of income reduced. Again the result of the study revealed that; municipality and town administration didn’t support the displaced households. Therefore, the recommendations of this study are; the municipality and woreda administration should be minimized rural to urban migration by create job opportunity in the rural areas. In addition to this the municipality should be used legal frameworks appropriately to determine compensation and setting survival strategies (created employment, organized in small business enterprise, provide loan and training) for displaced households.
Keyword: Urbanization,Compensation and Income.×
Ajanaw Kebede "Impact Assessment of Urban Expansion on the Incomes of Urban Fringe Farmers: The Case of Feresbet Town: Amhara Regional State: Ethiopia" Vol 2-Issue 4 (607-643) July - August 2019, International Journal of Scientific Research and Engineering Development (IJSRED) :ISSN:2581-7175, www.ijsred.com.×
Application of Geo-Informatics on Assessing Impact of Climate Change and Flood Risk on Groundwater Quality in Abia State
Author(s): Enyinna Gregory. C
This research is aimed at developing adaptation to climate change induced flooding and groundwater contamination so as to curbenvironmental and health hazards associated to the vulnerability of Abia state in relation to flooding and groundwater contamination. The research implored scientific method of collecting groundwater samples that were analyzed in government certified laboratories using membrane filtration technique, while the results were displayed on tables and graphs in comparison with world health organization standard to prove that water samples were actually contaminated. Climatic data on rainfall and temperature were collected from national root crop research institute umudikeUmuahia and were analyzed using excel spread sheet showing corrections between temperature and time.Mean while temperature analysis shows that R2= 0.325 while average rainfall frequency showed R2 = 0,018. Flood risk map was cartographically designed using ArcGIS 10.2 to show the parts of the state that are more vulnerable to flooding and the contaminants were overlaid on flood risk map to show how flooding influenced the rate of groundwater contamination. Measures of adaptation to climate change induced flooding and groundwater contamination were recommended to drastically reduce the possible future damages that this climate change induced flooding can cause if not sustainably handled in a proactive way.
Keyword: Climate Change, Flood Risk, Groundwater Contamination, Adaptation, WHO standard.×
Enyinna Gregory. C "Application of Geo-Informatics on Assessing Impact of Climate Change and Flood Risk on Groundwater Quality in Abia State" Vol 2-Issue 4 (644-659) July - August 2019, International Journal of Scientific Research and Engineering Development (IJSRED) :ISSN:2581-7175, www.ijsred.com.×
Application Of Geoinformatics and Drastic Model in Developing Groundwater Vulnerabilty Index Model For Abia State Nigeria
Author(s): Enyinna Gregory.C, Nkemdirim Victor.U
Application of geo-informatics and drastic model in developing groundwater vulnerability index model for Abia state Nigeria was researched on due to the rising conditions of groundwater contamination that have triggered water related diseases in the area. This was as a result of land use activities taking place in within water wells and around Aquifers of shallow water table. Arc GIS 10.2 was used to develop aquifer vulnerability index via transformation of hydrogeological data into 2D map while the weighting and data processing were done with the aid of DRASTIC model. The results show that Aba south (Ukwa west, Ukwa East, Ugwunagbo, Obinngwa and Osisioma) have extremely high vulnerability which is attributed to the shallow water table and the coastal sand nature of the aquifer. Furthermore, those aquifers resident in Abia central senatorial district (Isiala Ngwa south, Isiala Ngwa north, Ikwuano and Umuahia south LGAs)have high vulnerability, while Umuahia north LGA has moderate and high vulnerabilty. The aquifers resident in Abia north senatorial district (Umunnochi, Isiukwuato, Ohafia and Bende) LGAs have moderate and low vulnerability while Arochukwu LGA shears low, vulnerability. This model has shown that Abia south senatorial district is bound to have more groundwater contamination because of how extremely high venerable the groundwater aquifer is than Abia Abia central and Abia north senatorial district which moderate and low Aquifer vulnerability to pollution It is expected that this model will help the actors in the groundwater management sector to know the areas where groundwater table are under more risk of pollution than the other and for easier planning of sustainable groundwater source protection zone and bore hole development projects. The government and other actors in the water sector are therefore advised to acquire lands within areas of borehole development projects for public water supply systems to prevent land use activities that could cause pollution to groundwater sources so as to conserve groundwater in a sustainable form..
Keyword: Vulnerability index, Drastic Model, Development project, Aquifer Groundwater, Pollution Arc GIS.×
Enyinna Gregory.C, Nkemdirim Victor.U "Application Of Geoinformatics and Drastic Model in Developing Groundwater Vulnerabilty Index Model For Abia State Nigeria" Vol 2-Issue 4 (660-665) July - August 2019, International Journal of Scientific Research and Engineering Development (IJSRED) :ISSN:2581-7175, www.ijsred.com.×
Application of GeoInformatics in Development of Groundwater Prospect Model for borehole management and development projects in Nigeria
Author(s): Enyinna Gregory.C, Nkemdirim Victor.U
The research on application of geo-Informatics in developing groundwater prospect model, aims at producing a geo-environmental template for groundwater development and management that can help geo scientist and other stakeholders during bore hole drilling to identify non polluted sites for location of water wells, as well as Aquifer of high prolific nature for best groundwater yield during abreaction and also to avoid pollution of such groundwater wells and subsequent groundwater contamination. This research will also enhance effective harnessing of groundwater potentials in the seventeen (17) local government areas of Abia State. Arc GIS 10.2 was used in this model development, using the data extracted from Depth of water table, recommended water table depth for each local government area (LGA), thickness of prospective horizon, mean resistivity, lithology, x and y coordinate likewise the aquifer yield capacity. Excel spread sheet was also used to prepare a graphical representation of depth to water table, recommended well depth, thickness of the prospective horizon and Mean resistivity as well as Groundwater yield capacity for Abia State, Nigeria measured in (m3 h).These data were processed and fused into the groundwater prospect map showing the local government areas that have prolific yield (P) of groundwater (of 25m3/ h) , medium to high yield (M-H) (16m3/h) , medium yield (M) (14m3/h), low to medium yield (L-M) ( 12m3/h), low yield (10m3/h), and sample points. The results have identified the individual local government areas in Abia state that have the aquifer carrying capacity to produce sustainable groundwater in Abia state for development and management of water wells for public water supply system in the area.
Keyword: Geo-Informatics, Groundwater, Prospect, Model, Prolific Aquifer.×
Enyinna Gregory.C, Nkemdirim Victor.U "Application of GeoInformatics in Development of Groundwater Prospect Model for borehole management and development projects in Nigeria" Vol 2-Issue 4 (666-674) July - August 2019, International Journal of Scientific Research and Engineering Development (IJSRED) :ISSN:2581-7175, www.ijsred.com.×